In this frame below, the shadow cast on the wall presents a menacing character and gives the audience the impression that he is capable of something very evil. Most light sources have a non-negligible size and therefore exhibit the properties of a soft light to some degree. Soft light is light that tends to "wrap" around objects, projecting diffused shadows with soft edges. Intensity (I) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance (D), as expressed in the formula I = 1⁄D2. There are also many devices that can be used when your talent is facing towards the sun: diffusion rolls, bed sheets, shower curtains, and silks all do fine. Fill lighting. Notice the hard shadow on the table in front of the cups – that is created by the hard rim light. The quality of light can be altered by using diffusion gel or aiming a lighting instrument at diffusing material such as a silk. There are 12 basic types of lighting used in filmmaking: Key lighting is the main—and strongest—light source in a scene or on the actor. 60654, Hard light is often seen as being more dramatic, perhaps even sinister, depending on the final shot. Light travels in waves and softness determines how they are dispersed. “hard” versus “soft” lighting 2. what creates each and how to identify them 3. what types of situations to use each type of lig… Distance from a subject is an extremely important factor to consider when regarding the size of the source. Although the sun is a massive star at the center of our solar system, it’s about 93 million miles away from Earth. For the X-Files episode, see, Softness/hardness of various light sources, Learn how and when to remove this template message, An explanation of hard and soft light and its usage in photography, http://www.shortcourses.com/tabletop/lighting2-8.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hard_and_soft_light&oldid=984425901, Articles needing additional references from December 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Light intensity tends to dim with distance. Come back each week to read the whole series. on You can use it to draw attention anywhere in the frame, especially on the subject. "Soft light" and "Soft lights" redirect here. And it definitely doesn’t flatter the older generation. Soft light use is popular in cinematography and film for a number of different reasons: Hard light sources cast shadows whose appearance of the shadow depends on the lighting instrument. This will also increase the 3D-appearance of the object. Fill lighting adds dimension and softens harsh shadows created by the key light. A sunny day is hard light. Hard lighting in film is very directional and casts definitive shadows on the subject. Reflector spots, Fresnels, theatrical lekos and ellipsoidals make great hard lights. When you say high key lighting, what you are referring to are scenes that possess a lot of whites and light tones – a whole range of them. At large distances, an effective soft light source would have to be very large. Hard light makes distinct, hard-edged shadows. Fasten the ends using elbow fittings and you have yourself a simple, cost-effective frame that casts beautiful soft light in day exteriors. Soft light example with a hard light rim (kicker or accent) light from behind. In summary, the difference between hard and soft light is how it renders shadows and its relative distance to a subject; hard lights have definitive shadows while soft lights have smooth and gradual shadows. Film noir cinema embraced these techniques to overcome the limitations of black and white film. Sometimes a scene calls for the use of harsh shadows which we can shape (a topic we will later discuss) in several ways to fit a story. Soft light leaves blurry-edged shadows. Hard lighting in film is very directional and casts definitive shadows on the subject. Soft light use is popular in cinematography and film for a number of different reasons: In essence, a larger source is a softer source. Step out on any sunny day, and you will see the crisp shadows created by this very intense but small light source. It’s that simple and that complicated. There are various ways to control light to manipulate how it interacts with your subject. ellipsoidal reflector spotlights) have a good deal of "throw" and do not lose much intensity as distance increases. A popular method is bounce lighting, which uses a large white source and bounces light into the direction of a subject. USA Softness (quality) can be controlled by adjusting the light’s size relative to the subject. Read Part 3 – Film Lighting Basics: What’s the Color of Your Movie? You will get hard light from the midday sun, or a small lighting source. When hitting a textured surface at an angle, hard light will accentuate the textures and details in an object. In this article I’m going to explain a few terms and give you some tips on how to find the right light including: 1. The first uses of artificial lighting have been traced back as far as 1896, when the pioneering German filmmaker Oskar Messter (1866–1943) opened his indoor studio in Berlin. ******************************************************************************. Film Lighting Basics: 6 Ways to Shape Your Light, Film Lighting Basics: Motivate Your Scene and Your Audience Through Direction, emmaunel james.C. Certain types of film lighting represent entire genres of film. Several types of lighting instruments are used in TV to create hard light, including the beam-spot projector and the ellipsoidal spotlight. One I use most often is a simple 5 x 5 frame that utilizes a white bed sheet to diffuse light. Just cut a few pieces of lightweight PVC pipe to your desired length and cut out a bed sheet to overlap the entire frame. To be able to light in the film noir style, you need to remember three things about lighting. This is the creativity of light. Hard light can also work well for background projections. Hard light is a focused, often bright light that casts harsh shadows and draws attention to a specific part of a photo. The lighting needed for an intense one on one interview, for example, will contrast dramatically from that needed to provide the suitable lighting for a dramatic long shot taken outside at night time. As a light source becomes larger, it begins to wrap around the subject. For a point source of light, intensity decreases as distance increases. You may not expect it, but even lighting can add to and create meaning in a film. Notice how the light is unforgiving and hard and just brutal on her skin. Phone: 312-863-3456, First of all, to get a good crisp shadow, you need a small intense light. Since the light is being dispersed over a broader area, the shadows become softer since more points of contact are … Lighting is used in film to create a certain mood, or an atmosphere. In "hard" light sources, the parallelism of the rays is an important factor in determining shadow behaviour. The style featured dark shadows and low light and became synonymous with dark tales and sinister characters. This results in a softer, more flattering light. Film Lighting Basics: What’s the Color of Your Movie? By 1900 the Edison studio in America had begun to make regular use of artificial light to complement naturally available light. Film noir classics and dramas like Casablanca use a full gray scale from black to … The best example is the shadow from sunlight in a clear sky. Once you have a full understanding of hard and soft light sources, you can combine the two lighting techniques. The definition of high key lighting is a style of lighting for film, television, or photography that reduces the lighting ratio in the scene. Even an older movie would have used something like spun glass on a large scoop light for a softer fill, so I didn’t feel it was inappropriate to bounce lights off of white board, or occasionally use a 1x1 LED LitePanel next to the lens. In these next two shots you can see we brought the source closer and were able to gradually fill in the shadows. Consider the sun. 401 W Ontario St, Suite 100, September 22nd, 2017 10:21 am. Soft light makes shadows that are barely visible. The large shadow might also insinuate a sense of strength and power relative to the smaller character on the left. For a light source of infinite area, intensity does not decrease at all. A light’s quality describes the softness of its shadows and how it behaves. Cutouts can be made in the film to place side view LEDs at the appropriate location. Even direct sunlight does not cast perfectly hard shadows. Generally, a soft light source does not drop in intensity as quickly as a point light source would (as distance increases). When your subject is bathed in hard light, their silhouette will cast a distinct, hard shadow. Soft light comes from a light source that is large relative to the subject, whereas hard light from one that is small relative to the subject. In the 1940s, filmmakers used lighting to introduce film noir. You can create hard lighting with direct sunlight or a small, powerful light source. Notice the hard loop light under the model’s nose and chin. It is the most powerful light we have available to us and, best of all, it’s free. $$$, Revenge of the Great Camera Shootout 2012, Film Lighting Basics: The Tools you Need to Become a Master of Intensity. It is rendering hard shadows because its distance relative to the subject is too far away. It is important to understand the differences in quality of light between hard and soft, and how to control them respectively. You can generally tell how soft/hard a light is based on the shadows it creates. The most basic lighting in film is the three-point lighting setup. And they are also affordable, easily transported, and adaptable to different shooting environments.. Like LEDs, the fluorescent film lighting kits have modest power … Backlighting is placed behind the actor to help define their features and distinguish them from the background. Pros. Hard light is a harsh souring of light that can be created with a direct beam from a light source or from the sunlight. Devices that bounce light come in many different forms including foldable reflectors, cost-effective foam core, or even a simple t-shirt. To reiterate the points above in soft light, whether a light is soft or hard will completely come down to the size of the source. But, if you look up, you’ll notice that it’s relative size to us is about the same as your own fingernail. Soft lighting is generally more forgiving and leaves you with more wiggle room when dialing in your fill. Hard light is often much more difficult to work with, due to its contrasty nature. You can easily figure out if your light source is hard or soft depending on the shadows. Hard light is often unwanted. Read Part 5 – Film Lighting Basics: Motivate Your Scene and Your Audience Through Direction, One Response to “Film Lighting Basics: Soft Lighting and Hard Lighting in Film”, 4 Reasons to Pay More Attention to Your Soundtrack, 3 Ways to Simplify Your Soundtrack Song Search, 10 Tips for an Indie Film Producer (and anyone who makes film their life), Zacuto - 401 W Ontario St. Chicago, IL 60654 312-863-3456 800-294-FILM firstname.lastname@example.org, Zacuto Hard lights will have shadows with very sharp edges, whereas soft light will have shadows with soft edges or … Despite it creating harsh shadows, hard lighting is great for drawing attention to your main subject or to an area of the scene, highlighting your subject’s contour, and creating a strong silhouette. A cloudy day is soft light. Soft light can reduce shadows without creating additional shadows. Read Part 4 – Film Lighting Basics: 6 Ways to Shape Your Light For a thin infinitely long light source, intensity is inversely proportional to distance. In general, soft light is flattering light. Lighting with softer sources can help lift the ambiance of a scene. This is calledhard light. A bare bulb in a sock… Make a subject appear more beautiful or youthful through making wrinkles less visible. This kind of lighting creates shadows and harsh lines. Lighting from three directions shapes your subject and sets them apart from their background. Well, forget about the perfect light, and go for something different. Hard light creates sharp and harsh shadows. These light sources tend to be more effective at large distances than soft light sources. That is, the shadows produced will have 'harder' edges with less transition between illumination and shadow. For example, fresnel lights can be focused such that their shadows can be "cut" with crisp shadows. The hardness or softness of light depends mostly on the following two factors: The softness of a light can also be determined by the angle between the illuminated surface and the direction of the light source. The (mostly) parallel rays of such instruments tends to cast hard shadows, unlike soft light sources. Pictured below is the Lowel Rifa eX88 – a large 32″ x 32″ softbox. You may have heard the term “quality of light” before, but do you know what that really means and how do you go about finding this highly elusive “good light”so many photographers talk about? Horror movies, for instance, are known to frequently use lighting to set the tone and mood. Lighting equipment has become more compact, diverse, and designed to tailor for specific genres and types of video and film. It’s easier to explain with a simple drawing: Hard light leaves hard-edged shadows – they are well defined with a clear border. What is Hard Light, Soft Light and Diffused Light? This is the 2nd in a 5 part film lighting basics series from Robert Machado and Jeremy Le. Of course, nowadays, more sophisticated lighting technology is used in movie-making, so the three-light technique, while still in use today, has paved the way to more complex lighting setups. This technique is used to perform "motivated" lighting, where all light in the scene, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 01:29. In the first days of film, this was done to deal with high contrast, but now it's used by filmmakers to adjust the mood and tone of a scene. Side view LED’s are attached to the edge of the film. The sun is the best example of a hard light. In film, video, and photography, there are two big categories of light: hard light and soft light. IL , Read Part 1 – Film Lighting Basics: The Tools you Need to Become a Master of Intensity Using soft light during interviews helps blend the light into the scene itself, almost appearing as if there is no artificial light at all. If you lack fluorescents, then get your soft lights as high as possible and block the performers to stand beneath them. Focusing a fresnel makes the rays of emitted light more parallel. I’ve made several of my own DIY solutions to light day exteriors. Chicago, When shooting outdoors, cloud cover provides nature's version of a softbox. I usually shoot interviews with soft light to present the talent in the most flattering light. The only area in which I “cheated” regarding the hard light style was in the use of fill, since that’s a light that’s not supposed to be seen, only felt. Certain lensed lighting instruments (e.g. This is Part 2 of a Film Lighting Basics series from Robert Machado and Jeremy Le. The distance between the light source and the subject: The closer the light source and subject are to each other, the softer the light becomes. Light guide films typically have a thickness of 0.05” or more, and are made from polymers such as acrylic or polycarbonate. A great use of hard light is in The Night of the Hunter. It’s entirely possible to have a beautiful, large source that casts harsh shadows if it’s too far away. . The focused light will produce harder-edged shadows. Supplement the lighting from practicals. Lighting 102: 4.2 -- Ultra-Hard Light / Film Noir Results form last week's exercise, in which you were asked to experiment with restricted light. Shadows are incredibly important in visual storytelling and the absence of light is just as important as the prevalence of light; the selective use of hard and soft lighting in film plays a vital role in visual storytelling. In hard lighting, the transition between the light and the shadows is very harsh and defined. The series will cover Intensity, Quality, Color, Shape, and Direction. To achieve this, your film lighting equipment needs to face your subject from three directions: front, back and side (generally). There are many ways to harness the power of the sun and its quality. In the most basic sense, it boils down to two things: hard light and soft light. Fluorescent lights offer a naturally soft light that are common in everyday interiors. The steeper this angle is, the softer the light. Try something new. The parallelism of these rays determines the quality of the shadows. This helps “sell” the scene to the audience. Hard light casts strong, well defined shadows. In the art world, a painting technique called “chiaroscuro” emphasizes shadows and harsh lighting to create a sense of depth and volume within paintings. Solid light, often referred to in media as "hard light" or "hard-light", is a hypothetical material, made of light in a solidified state.Theoretically, it is possible to make such a material, and there are claims this material was already made, including claims from MIT and Harvard. Since the light is being dispersed over a broader area, the shadows become softer since more points of contact are lighting them. Stay tuned to the end for a chance to win an F7!We've all asked the question "how do I make my footage look more cinematic?" Hard and soft light are different types of lighting that are commonly used in photography and filmmaking. For shadows with no transitional edge/gradient, a point light source is required. Low-Key Low-key lighting produces mainly dark images accented by lighter areas. You can create hard light with a small, very intense lighting fixture. As a light source becomes larger, it begins to wrap around the subject. Also this week, an easy way to create a unique light source and a new assignment, all after the jump. Get out of that soft light rut, and get into hard, contrasty, and unforgiving light. Horror movies also have darker lighting characteristics. Volumetric lighting requires smaller sources that cast hard shadows to be used effectively – as in the shot below. 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