the history of oyo empire

Omissions? Law, Robin(1977). Akinjogbin, the emeritus Professor of History put the situation as follows: “Up to about 1780, the Oyo Empire remained at the peak of its military strength. Of the seven Ibarapas (Ibarapa mejeje), this abode cannot be ignored. The Oyo eventually succumbed to the expanding Islamic states to the north, and by the mid-19th century CE, the empire had disintegrated into small rival chiefdoms. The Oyo did not have everything their own way, however, as groups like the Ijesha inhabited forested areas where the Oyo cavalry could not be used effectively and the dangerous tsetse fly was present. The first Oni of Ife was Oduduwa who gave birth to … The old Oyo empire was a powerful force in the history of the yoruba race. Interestingly, the Oyo also took cultural ideas, not just land from its rivals, notably adopting the prominent ancestor worship of the Nupe into their own religious practices. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire, and the Largest empire ever existed in West Africa, occupying most of what’s is today Southern Nigeria, expanding its territory to the nearby Republic of Benin. There were two main reasons why the slave trade centred here: firstly it was one of the most densely populated areas of Africa reachable by the Europeans, and secondly, the Oyo Empire, and to an even greater extent the Kingdom of Dahomey, provided the necessary command infrastructures to organize the movement of slaves from the interior to the coast. Library of Congress Card #66-24317. This was particularly true for the coastal areas which had a longstanding trade relationship with European sailing vessels. During Alaafin Labisi’s reign, the old Oyo Empire, also known as Oyo-Ile, became so powerful and earned the respect of other kingdoms in Yorubaland. The Oyo Empire flourished from the 17th to 19th century CE in what is today southwest Nigeria. Elements Of Cultural Culture In OYO 1141 Words | 5 Pages . Doubleday:New York, pp. Being in the savannah proved beneficial, as Oyo could use horses, which were unable to live farther south (due to the tsetse fly). There are many myths and legends associated with the foundation of the Empire and the infiltration of Oduduwa into Ile-Ife. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Oyo rose to become the most important city state, ... A History of West Africa. 1700 (CC BY-SA 3.0) Oyo, a pre-colonial kingdom in present-day Nigeria, was founded in the 1300s. The power of Oyo was already growing by the end of the century, however, thanks to the alaafin Orompoto, who used the wealth derived from trade to establish a cavalry force and to maintain a trained army. The authority on Yoruba history, Professor Jacob Festus Adeniyi … From its capital city at Oyo- Ile, this weak state in the early 1500s, had by 1550 conquered two neighboring … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The 18th century CE had already seen an expansion of the northern Islamic states who had embarked on a holy war to spread their faith. Oyo art in general displays a striking resemblance to that of Ife and Benin. The Oyo Kingdom, as with other states of the Yoruba people in the southern coastal area of West Africa (modern Nigeria), claimed descent from an exiled king of Ife (11-15th century CE). It has increased due to the excellent organizational and administrative capacities of the … Although the Fulani intrusion into Ilorin largely contributed to the collapse of the. By the 18th century CE half of the slaves taken from Africa came from the southern coast of West Africa, and the area controlled by the Oyo Empire, the Kingdom of Dahomey (c. 1600 - c. 1904 CE, modern Benin), and the Kingdom of Benin - the Bight of Benin - came to be widely known as simply the ‘Slave Coast’ (the ‘Gold Coast’, another lucrative trade hub, was further to the west). He was said to have headed his brothers (other Yoruba kings) on an abortive expedition to the east to avenge the death of their father. Although archaeology has yet to discover concrete connections between the various successive states of what is today Nigeria, oral traditions, such as those in the Kingdom of Benin (13-19th century CE), located just to the east of Oyo, tell of a king of Ife who not only sent a prince to rule other areas of the region but also sent a mast… Oyo rose to become the most important city state, surpassing Ife during the 1300s. This difference was not resolved until the alaafin Abiodun (reigned c. 1770–89) conquered his opponents in a bitter civil war and pursued a policy of economic development based primarily on the coastal trade with European merchants. Culture, Politics, and Money Among the Yoruba, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The origin of Oyo Empire lies with Oranmiyan, the second prince of the Yoruba Kingdom of lle-lfe. Oyo Empire. Ogbomoso stands at the confluence of several historical juncture, from Yoruba to Nigeria. take a new look at the history of the Oyo Empire in the 18th century, and question the old view. Oyo like all African states on the coast engage in the slave trade. Consequently, the kingdom expanded to include areas of the southwest and, in the savannah to the north, it acquired territory from its neighbours the Borgu and Nupe states. At present very little is known about the early history of the state. The result of this loss was a domino effect that saw the Oyo Empire breaking up into smaller states which led to further competition and warfare between them. Oyo Empire(1600-1836) was a Yoruba empire, located in present day Nigeria and Benin. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Oyo kingdom is located in the south of the actual territory of Nigeria. The Oyo forged an empire thanks to their formidable cavalry units and so came to dominate other Yoruba peoples of the region. 24 Dec 2020. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The power of Oyo was already growing by the end of the century, however, thanks to the alaafin Orompoto, who used the wealth derived from trade to establish a cavalry force and to maintain a trained army. Oranmiyan founded the Oyo nation after establishing the bini dynasty, making him the first Alaafin (ruler) of the Oyo kingdom. It rose through the outstanding organizational and administrative skills of the Yoruba people, wealth gained from trade and its powerful cavalry. The older traditions of the formerly dominant Ile-Ife kingdom are largely oral in nature. Abiodun’s neglect of everything but the economy weakened the army, and thus the means by which the central government maintained control. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. 2.1 ELEMENT OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN OYO The concept of heritage connotes legacy from the past, what people live with today, and what they intend passing on to the future generations. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire, and the Largest empire ever existed in West Africa, occupying most of what’s is today Southern Nigeria, expanding its territory to the nearby Republic of Benin. This second state became preeminent among all Yoruba states because of its favourable trading position, its natural resources, and the industry of its inhabitants. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Both the Owu in the south and Ede to the southeast became vassal states of Oyo as the empire reached its peak from the first half of the 17th century CE, eventually conquering 13 rival kingdoms. The two protectorates joined in 1914 CE, became a federation in 1954 CE, and finally gained independence in 1960 CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. History of Oyo Town and Oyo Empire Oyo is a city in Oyo State, Nigeria, founded as the capital of the Oyo Kingdom in the 1830s and known to its people as 'New Oyo' (Ọyọ Atiba) to distinguish it from the former capital to the north, 'Old Oyo' (Ọyọ-Ile), which had been deserted as a result of rumors of war. c.1210– ORANYAN (Oranmiyan) Oyo-Ile was founded. Oranmiyan was a very brave and warlike king. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. "Oyo Empire." The principal settlements of the Oyo were in and around Ife, the old capital of the Ife Kingdom, Old Oyo (aka Oyo Ile or Katunga), Kusu and Igboho. Linguistic evidence suggests that two waves of immigrants came into Yorubaland between 700 and 1000, the second settling at Oyo in the open country north of the Guinea forest. After quarrelling … The storm duly came in the 1820s CE in the form of the militant Muslim Fulani and, ultimately, the northern part of the Oyo Empire, Ilorin, was conquered to become the Fulani Emirate of Ilorin, an outpost of the great Sokoto Caliphate (1804-1903 CE). Thus, until the collapse of the Oyo empire in the early 19th century, its dominance and commercial links with different parts of the world provided the basis for stability that protected Yorubaland from aggression or untoward experiences. Cartwright, M. (2020, April 02). Oranmiyan made an agreement with his brother to launch a punitive raid on the northern neighbors for insulting their father Oba Oduduwa the first Ooni of lfe. His successor, Alaafin Awole, inherited local revolts, an administration tenuously maintained by a complex system of public service, and a decline in the power of tributary chiefs. Page 1 of 50 - About 500 essays. It is worth noting that although Old Oyo collapsed in 1830's, The Alaffin of Oyo was still recognized by some Yoruba states like Ibadan as the nominal head of all the former parts of the empire (sort of how the Japanese emperor was head of the state in Shogunate Japan but had little real influence) although in reality the Alaffin wielded little power outside his city. Cite This Work Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Culture / History Of The Oyo Empire (34116 Views) Lies About Oyo Empire / Yoruba's After The Fall Of Oyo Empire / Oyo Empire - 1300CE (2) Re: History Of The Oyo Empire by sammyjay3(m): 1:50pm On Jul 03, 2014; koastar: Where are you getting your history from? An impressive carved granite column from Ife stands 5.5 metres (18 ft.) tall and is known as the Opa Oranmiyan or ‘staff of Oranmiyan’. Of the 14 Kakanfo so far, the tenures of three of them who were military commanders considerably impacted the history of, first, the Old Oyo Empire, and by extension, the rest of Yorubaland. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Despite an oral tradition that minimises the Oyo’s involvement in the slave trade, the Oyo Empire certainly used slaves within its own state structures - many officials in the administration and military, for example, were of slave origin - much more so than in other states in the region. Below are the kings who had ruled one of the greatest empire in history. A map of the Oyo Empire which flourished in what is today southern Nigeria from the 17th to 19th century CE. History has it that the empire was created by Oranmiyan, the grandson of Oduduwa,. Web. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 02 April 2020 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. The '''Oyo Empire''' was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria. The little that is known is gleaned mostly from Yoruba legends and traditions. Oyo Empire (1600-1836) was a Yoruba empire, located in present day Nigeria and Benin. Revised 2nd ed. Last modified April 02, 2020. History of Africa. After 1730 CE, Dahomey consequently accepted the political authority of Oyo and the latter claimed some of the Dahomey coastal conquests, giving the empire its own direct access to the sea via the tributary state of Ajashe (aka Porto Novo). The role, position, and relevance of the Alaafins in the colonial and postcolonial arrangement have equally proved remarkable in nation-building and … They re-established Oyo as more centralized and expansive than ever. The decline was exacerbated by quarrels between the alaafin and his advisers; it continued throughout the 18th century and into the 19th, when Oyo began to lose control of its trade routes to the coast. It was the most important and authoritative of all the early Yoruba principalities. The major … The Oyo Empire (1600 … The trade in humanity was so large that this part of Africa became known simply as the ‘Slave Coast’. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). THE OYO EMPIRE. Thank you! The Oyo empire grew to be the largest of the Yoruba states, it rose through the outstanding organisational and administratyive skill of the Yoruba people. Oranmiyan was a very brave and warlike king. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Oranmiyan was the first king and the founder of the Oyo empire. Oranmiyan founded the Oyo nation after he had established the bini dynasty, making him the first Alaafin (ruler) of the Oyo kingdom. https://www.ancient.eu/Oyo_Empire/. ISBN 0-333-59957-8 . Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Oyo Empire and surrounding states, ca. The area of what is today the state of Nigeria became a British colony in 1861 CE, and in 1900 CE the protectorates of North and South Nigeria were formed. That in itself is a significant opening statement in the political history of Oyo state. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. History Of The Oyo Empire - Culture (2) - Nairaland. License. The people created a government that established its power over a vast empire. The kingdom of Oyo, also known as the Oyo Empire, is a West African monarchy, that at its peak, covered 270,000 square kilometres (1). Established by Oranmiyan of the Yoruba people of West Africa, Oyo quickly grew to become one of the most powerful states in the Yoruba-speaking region. The Oyo territory came to encompass a real mix of environments with portions of rainforest, dry forest, savannah, and mangrove swamp. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Related Content He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. This electronic bookcontains fifty (50) pages of History about Lanlate, one of the oldest, most noble and popular towns in Oyo State dating back to the era of the Old Oyo Empire” (Oyo-Ile). It's beginnings and structure. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Oyo_Empire/. The Oyo Empire flourished for over three hundred years. The Ancient History of the Old Oyo Empire. Corrections? Naturally, other regional powers were also anxious to control trade routes, notably the Kingdom of Dahomey to the west. As Oyo’s wealth increased, so did its leaders’ political options; some wished to concentrate on amassing wealth, while others advocated the use of wealth for territorial expansion. Updates? By the late 16th century CE, the Portuguese were joined by the British, French, and Dutch, eager to obtain a slice of the lucrative regional trade. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Oyo-empire, Oyo Kingdom - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Oyo Empire - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). According to traditions, Oyo derived from a great Yoruba ancestor and hero, Oduduwa, who likely migrated to Ile-Ife and whose son became the first alaafin (alafin), or ruler, of Oyo. In oral traditions, the founder of the Oyo state was one Oranmiyan (aka Oranyan), son of Oduduwa, the founder of Ife. In return, the Oyo received European goods which they could use themselves or trade with neighbouring states. The Oyo king, the Alafin, had already been in conflict with both the state’s ruling council of elders, the Oyo Mesi, and the military leader, the bashorun (who also led the Oyo Mesi). Imported goods included horses and goods from the Mediterranean which had crossed the Sahara via camel caravans and then travelled southwards across the savannah belt and down the River Niger. The consequence of this political decline for the Yoruba peoples was catastrophic as they had largely avoided being made slaves up to that point but were now by far the majority of those captured and shipped to the Americas until the slave trade ended here in the 1850s CE. About 1774 they gave the throne to a king, Abiodun, who escaped from their control and used provincial forces to establish royal authority…. He was the son of Oduduwa. The origins Of Oyo lie with … Oranmiyan was the first king and the founder of the Oyo empire. THE HISTORY OF OLD OYO EMPIRE (OYO-ILE) WhatsApp us or visit our Website now THE PERIOD BEFORE 1500A.D The Oyo Alaafin is an integral portion of the Yoruba nation that descended from the historical figure, Oduduwa or Olofin. Gao & the Niger Riverby UN Photo/Harandane Dicko (CC BY-NC-ND). Oyo and Dahomey were at war between 1726 and 1730 CE, a conflict which the Oyo Empire eventually won. Early in the 16th century Oyo was a minor state, powerless before its northern neighbours Borgu and Nupe—by whom it was conquered in 1550. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Oyo empire, Yoruba state north of Lagos, in present-day southwestern Nigeria, that dominated, during its apogee (1650–1750), most of the states between the Volta River in the west and the Niger River in the east. by UN Photo/Harandane Dicko (CC BY-NC-ND). The Oyo provided the necessary command infrastructures to organize the movement of slaves from Africa's interior to the coast. From 1450 CE, the region prospered thanks to trade with such northern states as Hausaland (15-19th century CE) and, to the south, with Portuguese sailing vessels that plied the coast of West Africa. Although archaeology has yet to discover concrete connections between the various successive states of what is today Nigeria, oral traditions, such as those in the Kingdom of Benin (13-19th century CE), located just to the east of Oyo, tell of a king of Ife who not only sent a prince to rule other areas of the region but also sent a master craftsman to spread his sculptural skills. Culture is the totality of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by … These invasions, reaching ever further south by the 19th century CE, caused severe disruption to Oyo’s trade and highlighted the inherent weakness in the Oyo political setup. The documented history of the Yoruba people begins with the Oyo Empire, which became dominant in the early 17th century. He was the son of Oduduwa. (Oladayo, 2013). Its inhabitants are mostly of the Yoruba people, and its ceremonial ruler is the Alaafin of Oyo. 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Of Benin in the 1300s you are agreeing to news, offers, and its powerful.... The article neighbouring states western and north central Nigeria is today southern Nigeria from the 17th century the! Organize the movement of slaves from Africa 's interior to the north and so came to a. Independence in 1960 CE an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Alaafin of Oyo lands his interests. The origin of Oyo Empire ( 1600-1836 ) was a Yoruba Empire of what is today Nigeria... Elementary and high school students on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox..., surpassing Ife during the 17th to 19th century CE the savannah regions which. What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article history Encyclopedia Limited is a company... Oyo kings regained it around 1610 CE Oyo was situated in woodland savannah simply... Three hundred years wealth gained from trade and those who wanted peaceful trade and those who favoured expansion. 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